Category Archives: Upcoming Technology

4G Technology

4G TechnologyIn recent years, the communication field has experienced an elevated era in technology. Since we have ushered in the 21st century, so with time the technology is also getting more and more advanced. The latest advancement being the “4g” viz the 4th generation communication technology.

In the history of mobile phones we come across 4 different eccentrics viz 0G, 0.5G, 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G and the latest being 4G which is also sometimes referred as super 3G.

OG: This generation experienced the development of two way radio telephones. Which was successfully tested by soviet engineers G.Shapiro and I.Zaharchenko in 1964, and mounted it inside a car, train and airplanes? This was the device which could connect to local telephone network within a range of 20kms.

0.5G: This was a little upgraded from 0G by introducing ARP, the first public commercial mobile phone network which overcame the limited coverage area drawback.

1G: This generation introduced the wireless technology, mobile technology. It used analog type of radio signals for the transmission of voice. The voice signal transmitted was modulated to higher frequency of 150MHz and above.

2G, 2.5G, and 2.75G: In 19th century second generation was introduced. Which bought GSM, IS-136 and IS-95? Out of which IS-136 use TDMA (time division multiple access) and IS-95 uses CDMA (code division multiple access. 2G introduced wireless transmission via digital signals using circuit switched technique. It bought new variant in telecommunication by introducing SMS (short message service) and multimedia access on the mobile phones.

3G: 2G is widely used worldwide now. But due its limited data rates it’s difficult to use applications like video conferencing, video and music download. Thus, to overcome these drawbacks 3G came into existence which has wider bandwidth and high data rate of about 2Mbps by using packet switching mode of transmission.
The first commercial launch of 3G was on October 1,2001, by NTT DoCoMo. They used WCDMA technology which is better than CDMA. This generation encourages video telephony using EDGE which is the latest GSM technology which supports high rate multimedia. We also have an advanced 3G mobile telephony protocol HSDPA (high speed downlink packet access) which allows data transfer at high speeds.

4G: This is the future generation of telecom industry. Which is fastest and more efficient than 3G? 4G will provide data rate of 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1Gbps for low mobility.

And you never know there is a high possibility of 4G coming to India before 3G.

4G Tehnology hits the market

4G technology hits the market4G  technology is based on OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) ,this allows the data to be send over hundreds of parallel streams thus increasing the amount of data that can be send with less complexity as compared to 3G data transfer . The standard systems for 4G are WiMAX, HSDPA, UMTS, and TDD UMTS.
The aim of introducing an enhanced 4G can be:

  • It uses “adaptive processing”, which helps in the reduction of channel interference and reception by constantly switching channels.
  • It uses “smart antennas”, which has higher directivity increasing the efficiency of receiving the radio signals transmitted from the terminal end.
  • High network capacity and smooth handoffs between heterogeneous networks.
  • Providing ease of access for wireless broadband services, multimedia messaging (MMS), mobile TV, HDTV, video conferencing.
  • It uses IP, packet switched network which is capable of utilising all it resources effectively.
  • Power saving mechanisms and advanced QoS.
  • It provides low latency for real time applications.
  • 4G works on variable data rates as it switches its channel frequently as it uses OFDM. OFDM provides high spectral efficiency. OFDM also provides high resiliency to RF interference and multipath distortion is low, due to which the inter symbol interference (ISI) is very low. As also due to soft handoffs, the voice clarity is extremely high.

As technology progresses it makes our lifestyle more and more leisurely. With the high mobility and less of time, are the biggest constrains 4G can resolve.

4G will bring a revolutionary change in the wireless technology, where such different access technologies as cellular, cordless, wireless LAN type systems, short-range wireless connectivity, and wired systems will be
Combined on a common platform to complement each other in the best possible way. The development is expected to inspire the progressive trend in the current technology.
The elementary purpose of 4G service is to be interactive due to convergence network which is applicable for home-networking, telemetric, and sensor-network service.

4G will commercialize the current scenario. But due to high cost and hi-tech infrastructure needed there is being delay in 4G to come up in INDIA. But, it’s not like 4G technology is not present in the market. Recently, NTT Docomo has declared to launch 4G services in Japan around 2010-2015. Providing maximum data transfer rate of 20 Mbps.

4G to be launched in two cities of U.S. by Verizon this year, using 700 MHz frequency band.
Zain Internet Service provider (ISP) and Mada has announced the formal launch of the 4G wireless broadband WiMax E-version service. The announcement was made Wednesday the 25th of March. This was held at an event organised by both companies under the auspice of the Minister of Information and Communications Technology Eng. Bassem Al Rousa.
This service offers high speed wireless broadband internet to customers.

The 4G wireless broadband internet service will be accessible and read for use through Motorola Wi-Max solution. This service is going to be the first of its kind in terms of speed, strength of coverage, geographic outreach, and the availability of a user friendly plug and play devise.

Also, Sprint is working on a WiMAX-enabled Smartphone that will support both 4G and 3G connectivity. WiMax-connected device will run three or five times faster than the 3G connected devices with varied features including video conferencing, improved multimedia quality with high definition and low latency. Thus, seeing the recent scenario we can conclude that it is inevitable that 4G will replace 3G in the long run. There are still chances of 4G to flourish due to new innovations and adaptive changes in the technology.

Know About Cloud Computing – New Age Computing

know about cloud computingThe name cloud computing is inspired by the name “cloud” which means collection of particles (e.g.: smoke, dust or gases) that is visible. And cloud computing refers to the collection of information which is made available on the internet as also which is a commonly used symbol to represent the web in flowcharts and diagrams.
Which has roots lying on the web and branches which is shared for diverse applications like it can be web based emails, memory sharing , data processing etc. Cloud computing has come into existence to provide easy and scalable access to available computing resources via internet. The wed based applications can be accessed via the web browser while the software and data can be accessed via servers.

Cloud computing is broadly classified in three eccentrics:

Cloud computing resembles the pay- for- what -you -use model. It permits you to use as much resources as you need and pay only for that similar to electricity and water consumption, thus it is sometimes referred as utility computing.

IAAS: In this service the user is provided by virtual servers and memory for storage. Through provider’s application program interface (API) users can access, control and operate their servers. This service is also called as utility service.

PAAS: This service provides set of software and development tools to their users. They develop applications on the provider’s platform over the internet. Here the provider’s can also access API’S, website portal or gateways or the software’s installed on the customer’s computer.

SAAS: This is a broad market where users are allowed only to use the applications directly. These applications can be web based email or applications like facebook and twitter .

There can be various types of clouds :

PUBLIC: The public cloud shares services with anyone on the internet. These services are available via the web applications on the internet and the users can use these services as and when they require on utility basis.

PRIVATE: The private cloud shares the services to only selected users. These cloud provide network and data centre for a limited number of customers.

HYBRID: The hybrid cloud consists of both the internal and external i.e. private or public services. It supports both the physical and virtual servers and routers to access the required services.

Cloud computing is growing with time as it does not need any capital investment for the infrastructure and hardware. Instead it just has to rent or subscribe for the softwares and services they require. The other benefits also include resource sharing, shared infrastructures and softwares as also access to a broad range of applications simultaneously.
Thus, with this service the upfront capital expenditure for the companies for the hardware, softwares and the services they utilise will eventually be very minimal as compared to current investments. Many companies like IBM, Google, Microsoft and Gartner are seeing potential in cloud computing to provide better interactive services between their clients and the services provided to them by the companies .

Time for Web 3.0

Time for web 3.0In the ever changing world today, where nothing is constant “change” is the only thing that is constant. This we all might have heard several times. But how and where do we find these changes..?? Is this in our environment, nature, where we see the sun rises and sets at the it’s own time or is it in our daily routine..? It is rather toilsome to find answers to these questions but what is evident from this is that, we all need changes. And the changes which we can relate to our everyday life are always welcomed with open arms. Similar, is the change brought by Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web, in the form of “Web 3.0” .

With the time proceeding ahead there are diverse alterations in technology. Take the web for instance; it has dwelled from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 i.e. from just an informative web to a more interactive one. Tim Berners-Lee, has come up with Web 3.0 which is also known as ‘semantic web’.

Tim Berners-Lee expressed his views on Web 3.0, as his dream to merge all the links, data and the interactions between the web and users through an intelligent search which even the computer can read and relate to. After this you might have got the rough idea about Web 3.0. In layman terms, you can say it is an intelligent interface between the computers and the web.

As in Web 2.0 ,we can socially interact with the web, which can be addressed as a duplex communication where there is two ways interactivity to read and write, but this interaction is understood only by humans . This is not going to be the case with Web 3.0. The machines are going to be endued with intelligence so that it can read the Web as much as we humans can and give us a more precise and accurate search results. These search results will be a combination of artificial intelligence and semantic web which all together will form a database which gives the admittance to both the machines and the web to incur the information postulated.

Web 3.0 will embark much more than just social networking, collaboration of various websites, use and create applications. It will commence the era of intelligent search with versatile web applications . This will wreak a new platform for open sourced data and software sources via the application programming interfaces (API’s). But, this will increase the security risk. Thus, for Web 3.0 to come into existence is going to take a longer duration of time may be more than it took to bring the Web into existence.

Midori OS – Next generation operating system

windows midoriWe all have operated computers, worked on different operating systems like Windows, Linux, UNIX etc. But the more user friendly and often used is the Microsoft’s Windows. Since , Nov 1985 the time when windows was conceived till today it has just grown learning from all the former OS explicated.

In the recent era, Internet had become substantive than PC, more is the requirement to be updated and interactive with the outside world and get the overview of the recent scenario about the occurrences in the market rather than to make excel sheets on the PC. But till when will the invention of operating systems survive on windows…? Will there be any other platform available..? The answer to all these questions is YES.

On the platform of cloud computing and .NET Microsoft is working on presenting the second era in operating systems by designing a non-window based OS , “MIDORI”.

Microsoft has not openly given any details regarding Midori, but has surely accepted that it exists. Midori is expected to work on the footprints of cloud computing and singularity. A totally new concept ‘Singularity’ is based on high reliability and which will offer a new platform for Midori to boom. Singularity possesses three key components: the kernel, software isolated processes and channels.

The kernel is responsible for managing the memory, internal and external processes, scheduling. The kernel is written only 5% in the assembler or C, C++ and rest in any other language that contains #, like C#. These are then translated to Microsoft independent language (MSIL) which is processor independent instruction set of Microsoft Common Language Runtime (CLR) which is compiled in Microsoft research Bartok compiler. The languages with only #, are used as they offer more reliability from viruses, buffer overruns, exploitation by worms.

Software Isolated Processes have all the backup data and executing codes in case of any failure like a device driver or system process, this preventing the OS to come down. Two SIP’s cannot access the same object simultaneously and have different run time and different specified applications.

Channels are the way of communication between the SIP’s. These are bidirectional channels used for communication and provide more reliability.

Midori is supposed to work on hardware like ARM, x86 ,x64 . It is an attempt to make an contemporary OS which will configure with any type of hardware and will be available on the internet and work on virtual servers via cloud computing. These concepts will eliminate the dependency on the local hardware and applications for an OS. According to Brain Madden, a technology analyst we don’t need to natively install the OS on the PC. “Why do we need it? We have hypervisors everywhere” he said.

As cloud computing has introduced the service on demand concept, Internet centric OS do make sense. As this may help in over all connectivity of the systems and provide what all applications needed. As to eliminate the problems like application compatibility which are faced by the Vista users can also solved by this new OS by using Virtualization.
As we cannot say the time when MIDORI will be officially announced by Microsoft, but this will surely make an impact similar or more radiant than that when Windows was launched in 1985.

Google Goggles – My personal review

Google goggles personal reviewWelcome to the world of interactive search engines, as Google introduces its new synergistic search. We have all experienced using Google; it has a very simple and precise way of searching things via the words given by the user. So basically Google takes the keywords given by the user and link to all the various sites which has some substantial data related to it.

Thus, to take a step ahead in the field of visual search Google introduced its new product named as Google goggles. The name may sound humorous but its function is highly impressive. You just have to click a picture from the android phone, having the Google goggles application, and just Google goggles. It will give all the information related to that picture. For example, at the launch of Google goggles a picture of a bottle of wine was clicked by an android phone. When this picture was ran through Google goggles it showed that the bottle contains some apricots. You can use goggles to find various things like CD covers, bar codes, logos and labels. To read the text Google goggles uses optical character recognition for reading logos and labels.

Google goggles is an android application, which recognises the picture clicked and gives the search related to it as to what is there in that picture. Right now it recognises various pictures of different landmarks, books, places, contact info, labels and logos. It is working on recognising various other aspects like plants, fruits etc.
In layman language, internet means Google. To find any info you just have to know how and what to Google right. And if you don’t know what it is just click a picture and goggles will tell you all about it. This is the latest advancement in the arena of visual search. This application can be very useful in revealing out all the undercover secrets of the corruption happening and can be send on and can be known to each and everyone. This new creation will give advanced knowledge about different things from the educational aspects of the growing children. For that instance any individual, will be curious to know about the thing if he sees something new and knows absolutely nothing about it. This application on the broader scale can help us differentiate between the texture and looks of lookalike things which have totally different characteristics.

With the help of different technologies available today like image processing we can clearly notice even the minute details in the picture. Thus, with this we can conclude that Google goggles is a boon in the field of visual communication.